Battles in Italy
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The Byzantines, under Belisarius and Narses, fought several battles in Italy against the Austrasian Franks, the Goths and the Alemanni. These included battles near Capua and further north in the Apennines. At one point the barbarians plundered Rome but vacated it, permitting the Byzantines to reoccupy the city. 
 The Battle of Zappolino 1325 Thursday, 2/8/07, 8:40 AM 
 The Battle of Zappolino was fought in 1325 between the towns of Bologna and Modena. The Modenese were victorious. The battle is also famous because the Modenese got a bucket as loot from the Bolognese, and never returned it, even when the Bolognese bought back the lost territories. The history of the bucket was told in Alessandro Tassoni's La Secchia Rapita satirical poem. 
 From: Bolognese 
 Battle of Ponte della Maddalena 1799 Monday, 11/20/06, 10:32 AM 
 Following the French Revolutionary takeover of Naples, the Neapolitan court at Palermo sent Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, a wealthy and influential prelate, to Calabria to organize a counter- revolution. He succeeded beyond expectation, and with his "Christian army of the Holy Faith" (Esercito Cristiano della Santa Fede), consisting of brigands, convicts, peasants and some soldiers, marched through the kingdom plundering, burning and massacring. An English squadron approached Naples and occupied the island of Procida, but after a few engagements with the Republican fleet commanded by Francesco Caracciolo, an ex-officer in the Bourbon navy, it was recalled to Palermo, as the Franco- Spanish fleet was expected. Ruffo, supported by the Russian and Turkish ships under command of Admiral Ushakov, now marched on the capital, whence the French, except for a small force under Méjean, withdrew. The scattered Republican detachments were defeated, only Naples and Pescara holding out. On 13 June 1799 Ruffo and his troops reached Naples, and after a desperate battle at the Ponte della Maddalena, entered the city. For weeks the Calabresi and lazzaroni continued to pillage and massacre, and Ruffo was unable, even if willing, to restrain them. But the Royalists were not masters of the city, for the French in Castel Sant'Elmo and the Republicans in Castel Nuovo and Castel dell¿Ovo still held out and bombarded the streets, while the Franco-Spanish fleet might arrive at any moment. Consequently Ruffo was desperately anxious to come to terms with the Republicans for the evacuation of the castles, in spite of the queen¿s orders to make no terms with the rebels. After some negotiation the parties concluded an armistice and agreed on capitulation (onorevole capitolazione), whereby the castles were to be evacuated, the hostages liberated and the garrisons free to remain in Naples unmolested or to sail for Toulon. 
 From: Napoli 
 Lake Benacus (Garda) November 268AD Monday, 3/20/06, 10:45 AM 
 Together with the battles of Placentia ¿ Fano ¿ Pavia - Lingones - Vindonissa - Reims - Strasbourg - Solicinum and Argentovaria, this was one of the decisive battles that marked the beginning of the Roman Empire's emergence from the Crisis of the Third Century, with the defeat of the invading German Alemanni tribe. The battle was fought along the banks of Lake Garda in northern Italy, which was known to the Romans as Benacus. The battle took place in November of 268 between approximately 35,000 men under the command of the Roman Emperor Claudius II and the Germanic tribe of the Alamanni, whose invading army may have numbered upwards of 100,000. The Alamanni, who had been making incursions into Roman territory since the reign of Marcus Aurelius, had broken through the Roman frontier at the Brenner Pass earlier in the year, when internal rebellions and a huge invasion by the Goths forced the Romans to denude the frontier of troops. That autumn, when virtually the entire Roman army was busy crushing the Goths at the Battle of Naissus, the Alamanni occupied large areas of undefended northern Italy. Claudius may well have tried to negotiate a withdrawal by the Alamanni, but when that failed, he chose to fight them instead. Details of the battle are sketchy, but it is known that Claudius won a tremendous victory, killing or capturing more than half the force confronting him, and sending the rest fleeing back over the Alps. The Roman victory at Lake Benacus, coupled with that won by Gallienus, Claudius and Aurelian at Naissus, provided evidence that the Roman empire could still successfully resist its enemies. The people of the empire took heart from these triumphs, and over the next seven years, Claudius and his brilliant general and successor Aurelian recovered all the empire's lost territories and ejected all the barbarian invaders. 
 From: Lombardy 
 Web Site: 
 battle of Verona c 247AD Monday, 3/20/06, 10:08 AM 
 Around A.D. 247 the Emperor Philip the Arab, a Syrian, sent his ablest general, Decius, to quell the disturbance on the Danube, but the army, angered by Philip's attempts to control it, gave Decius the choice of being made emperor or being assassinated. He chose the former and, instead of heading his troops against the Goths, marched back into Italy. At the battle of Verona, both Philip and his son were killed. 
 From: po valley 
 Athenian siege of Syracuse Tuesday, 3/7/06, 11:27 AM 
 "The ancient city, in its most prosperous times, was chiefly built on the knob of land which projects into the sea on the eastern coast of Sicily, between two bays ; one of which, to the north, was called the Bay of Thapsus, while the southern one formed the great harbor of the city of Syracuse itself. A small island, or peninsula (for such it soon was rendered), lies at the southeastern extremity of this knob of land, stretching almost entirely across the mouth of the great harbor, and rendering it nearly land-locked. This island comprised the original settlement of the first Greek colonists from Corinth, who founded Syracuse two thousand five hundred years ago ; and the modern city has shrunk again into these primary limits. But, in the fifth century before our era, the growing wealth and population of the Syracusans had led them to occupy and include within their city walls portion after portion of the mainland lying next to the little isle, so that at the time of the Athenian expedition the seaward part of the land between the two bays already spoken of was built over, and fortified from bay to bay, and constituted the larger part of Syracuse" 
 From: Sicily 
 Web Site:  Creasy 
 Battles of the Condottieri (Mercenaries) Tuesday, 3/7/06, 5:20 AM 
 Italian language site. 
 From: Italy 
 Web Site:  Roberto Damiani 
 some Italian battles Tuesday, 3/7/06, 4:58 AM 
 Battle of Coronate Battle of Fossalta Battle of Garigliano Battle of Modovi Battle of Bezzecca B cont. Siege of Brescia C Battle of Campaldino F Siege of Faenza G Battle of Guadalajara P Battle of Parma S Battle of Stalingrad T Battle of Tagliacozzo V Siege of Viterbo Battle of Vittorio Veneto Z Battle of Zappolino 
 History of Italy by region Tuesday, 3/7/06, 4:56 AM 
 Web Site:  Wiki 
 Battle of Monte Lattaro / Mons Lactarius / Vesuvius 553 Tuesday, 3/7/06, 4:06 AM 
 Justinian I of Byzantium waged war against the Ostrogoths in Italy. After the Battle of Taginae, in which the Ostrogoth king Totila was killed, the Byzantine general Narses captured Rome and besieged Cumae. Teia, the new Ostrogoth king, gathered the remnants of the Ostrogoth army and marched to relieve the siege, but in October of 553 Narses ambushed him in the mountains near Mt. Vesuvius. The battle lasted two days, and Teia was killed in the fighting. The Ostrogoth power in Italy was eliminated, but Narses allowed the few survivors to return to their homes as subjects of the empire. The absence of authority in Italy after the battle led to an invasion by the Franks, but they too were defeated and the peninsula was, for a short time, reintegrated into the empire. The battle can be considered revenge for the Roman defeat at Adrianople (378), since the imperial infantry annihilated the Ostrogoth cavalry. 
 From: Campania 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
 77 battles of the Roman Republic Thursday, 3/2/06, 9:39 AM 
 From: Italy 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
 Battle of Meloria 1284 Thursday, 3/2/06, 9:28 AM 
 Genoese defeated Pisa. Genoa was later deprived of her naval ascendancy by the War of Chioggia (1379 - 1381). 
 From: Tuscany 
 Battle of Maclodio 1427 Thursday, 3/2/06, 9:25 AM 
 Giovanni Maria of Milan heavily defeated by Venetians 
 The Battle of Gavinana August 3, 1530 Thursday, 3/2/06, 5:41 AM 
 The Battle of Gavinana was fought on August 3, 1530 between the city of Florence and the forces of the Holy Roman Empire. The Imperial forces were led by Philibert of Châlon, Prince of Orange, with reinforcements under Fabrizio Maramaldo arriving later in the battle. The Florentine forces were led by Francesco Ferruccio. Despite being outnumbered, the Florentines managed to drive back the Imperial army, killing the Prince of Orange in the process. However, when Maramaldo arrived the tide was reversed, and after being wounded and captured, Ferruccio was executed personally by Maramaldo. 
 From: nr Florence 
 Battle of Landriano Thursday, 3/2/06, 5:39 AM 
 the decisive defeat of a French relief force under the Duke of St. Pol at the Battle of Landriano, ended Francis's hopes of regaining his hold on Italy during the War of the Cognac League 
 Battle of Amanthea Tuesday, 2/28/06, 7:58 AM 
 Between January and June 1810 Captain Prescott of HMS Weazle made seventeen prizes off Sardinia. On 25 July 1810 Weazle spotted a large convoy close in shore off Amanthea and signalled HMS Thames and HMS Pilot. As the other two ships came up the enemy hauled the merchant vessels up on the beach and protected them with gunboats and Scampavias. Small batteries covered the flanks. The British ships formed into line and drove the enemy crews ashore with grape, then the seamen started to bring off the vessels under the protection of Royal Marines. Twenty-eight transports were brought off with six gunboats and two Scampavias. The rest, 7 gunboats, 5 armed vessels and 31 transports, were destroyed. Two days later Capt. Prescott again landed at Amanthea, supported by Marines from HMS Cumberland, 74, and, after destroying several vessels, brought off a gun. During August Capt. Prescott was engaged with two convoys and captured six vessels. The loss of the convoy forced Murat to abandon his plans for the invasion of Sicily and he returned to Naples. 
 From: Calabria 
 Web Site:  SHIPS OF THE OLD NAVY ¿ Michael Phillips 
 Rome and its enemies Monday, 2/20/06, 3:01 AM 
 This site claims 180MB of information ¿ the page on Rome¿s enemies looks especially interesting. 
 Web Site:  UNRV History 
 Two battles in the Langhe Wednesday, 2/8/06, 3:27 AM 
 The Langa area of Piemonte in NW Italy is known for two ancient battles: the Campi Raudii battle in 101 BC, near Ferrara, Vercellae, and Roddi, where Marius defeated the German Cimbri, and the Pollentia battle in 402, where Stilico defeated Alarico's Goths. 
 From: Piemonte 
 Web Site:  Historion 
 Italian battles in the early Roman period Sunday, 1/22/06, 1:22 AM 
 496 BC Battle of Lake Regillus - A legendary early Roman victory, won over either the Etruscans or the Latins 477 BC Battle of the Cremera - All the Fabii but one are killed 458 BC Battle of Mons Algidus - Cincinnatus wins over the Aequi [edit] 4th century BC 396 BC - Battle of Veii - Romans complete conquest of Etruscans 390 BC - Battle of Allia River - Gauls defeat the Romans, leading to the Gallic sack of Rome 342 BC - Battle of Mount Gaurus - Roman general Marcus Valerius Corvus defeats the Samnites 339 BC - Battle of Vesuvius - Romans under P. Decius Mus and T. Manlius Imperiosus defeat the rebellious Latins. 338 BC - Battle of Trifanum - Roman general T. Manlius Imperiosus decisively defeats the Latins. 321 BC - Battle of the Caudine Forks - Romans under Spurius Postumius and T. Verturius Calvinus are defeated by the Samnites under Gaius Pontius. 316 BC - Battle of Lautulae - Romans are defeated by the Samnites. 315 BC - Battle of Ciuna - Romans defeated the Samnites 310 BC - Battle of Lake Vadimo - Romans, led by dictator Lucius Papirius Cursor, defeat the Etruscans. 305 BC - Battle of Bovianum - Roman consuls M. Fulvius and L. Postumius decisiviely defeat the Samnites to end the Second Samnite War. [edit] 3rd century BC 298 BC - Battle of Camerinum - Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio in the first battle of the Third Samnite War. 295 BC - Battle of Sentinum - Romans under Fabius Rullianus and Publius Decimus Mus defeat the Samnites and their Etruscan and Gallic allies, forcing the Etruscans, Gauls, and Umbrians to make peace 293 BC - Battle of Aquilonia - Romans decisively defeat the Samnites. 285 BC - Battle of Arretium - A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls 283 BC - Battle of Lake Vadimo - A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabella defeats the Etruscans and Gauls. 282 BC - Battle of Populonia - Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed. 280 BC - Battle of Heraclea - First engagement of Roman and Greek armies, the latter led by Pyrrhus of Epirus, who is victorious, but at great cost. 279 BC - Battle of Asculum - Pyrrhus again defeats the Romans. 275 BC - Battle of Beneventum - Pyrrhus is finally defeated by the Romans under Marcus Curius Dentatus. 261 BC - Battle of Agrigentum - Carthaginian forces under Hannibal Gisco and Hanno are defeated by the Romans, that attain control of most of Sicily. 260 BC ¿ Battle of the Lipari Islands - A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians Battle of Mylae - A Roman naval force under C. Duillius defeats the Carthaginian fleet, giving Rome control of the western Mediterranean. 256 BC - Battle of Cape Ecnomus - A Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated in an attempt to stop a Roman invasion of Africa by Marcus Atilius Regulus. Battle of Adys - Romans under Regulus defeat the Carthaginians in North Africa 255 BC - Battle of Tunis - Carthaginians under Xanthippus, a Greek mercenary, defeat the Romans under Regulus, who is captured. 251 BC - Battle of Panormus - Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal are defeated by the Romans under L. Caecilius Metellus. 249 BC - Battle of Drepana - Carthaginians under Adherbal defeat the fleet of Roman admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher. 242 BC - Battle of the Aegates Islands - Roman sea victory over the Carthaginians, ending the First Punic War 225 BC - Battle of Faesulae - Romans are defeated by the Gauls of Northern Italy. 224 BC - Battle of Telamon - Romans under Aemilius Papus and Caius Atilius Regulus defeat the Gauls. 222 BC - Battle of Clastidium - Romans under Marcus Claudius Marcellus defeat the Gauls. 218 BC - November Battle of the Ticinus - Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder in a small cavalry fight. Battle of the Trebia - Ha 
 From: Italy 
 Battle of the Stones 1388 Monday, 6/13/05, 4:28 AM 
 On a hill high above Giornico 200 Swiss troops defeated the Milanese army by rolling boulders on top of them ¿..the encounter became known as ¿The Battle of the Stones¿. The Italians built three castles and a wall across the valley at Bellinzona, to keep the Swiss at bay. 
 From: Giornico, just up the valley from Bellinzona in the Ticino canton of Switzerland. 
 The 13 Battles of the Isonzo Friday, 6/10/05, 6:36 AM 
 The Battle of the Isonzo is the name given to numerous battles fought in the Isonzo River valley of Slovenia. Battle of Isonzo (489) - Ostrogoth invasion of Italy. During the First World War the Isonzo valley lay on the Alpine Front between Italy and Austria-Hungary and was the scene of a succession of twelve battles: First Battle of the Isonzo - 23 June¿7 July 1915 Second Battle of the Isonzo - 18 July¿3 August 1915 Third Battle of the Isonzo - 18 October¿3 November 1915 Fourth Battle of the Isonzo - 10 November¿2 December 1915 Fifth Battle of the Isonzo - 9¿17 March 1916 Sixth Battle of the Isonzo - 6¿17 August 1916 Seventh Battle of the Isonzo - 14¿17 September 1916 Eighth Battle of the Isonzo - 10¿12 October 1916 Ninth Battle of the Isonzo - 1¿4 November 1916 Tenth Battle of the Isonzo - 12 May¿8 June 1917 Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo - 19 August¿12 September 1917 Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo - 24 October¿7 November 1917 also known as the Battle of Caporetto 
 Web Site:  The 13 Battles of the Isonzo 
 Battle of Tagliacozzo 1268 Wednesday, 3/16/05, 6:23 AM 
 Conradin, 15 years old and last of the Hohenstaufen Emperors, was defeated by the pro-Papal Guelfs and beheaded in the marketplace of Naples. ¿Dopo la battaglia di Benevento, che aveva visto la sconfitta e la morte di Manfredi, Carlo I d'Angiò si era impadronito di tutto il Mezzogiorno ed aveva trasferito la capitale da Palermo a Napoli. Nel frattempo i ghibellini venivano di nuovo cacciati da Firenze e tornarono a riaffermarsi i guelfi. I ghibellini cercarono una riscossa con Corrado V che, venuto dalla Germania per riconquistare il regno di Napoli, si scontrò nel 1268 a Tagliacozzo con le forze di Carlo I d'Angiò. L'esercito di Corradino era già riuscito a mettere in fuga le truppe angioine, quando, durante l'inseguimento, fu sorpreso alle spalle dalle truppe francesi tenute di riserva per consiglio di Alardo di Valery. Mentre Corradino cercava scampo nella fuga, fu tradito da un feudatario romano, il Frangipane, che lo imprigionò. Consegnato a Carlo I, Corradino fu decapitato a Napoli nella piazza del mercato¿ 
 From: Italy 
 Italian battles of the thirteenth century Wednesday, 3/16/05, 6:19 AM 
 Articles on some or all of the following: Benevento 1266 Fossalta 1249 Bouvines 1214 Meloria 1284 Campaldino 1239 Montaperti 1260 Colle Val d'Elsa 1269 Tagliacozzo 1268 Cortenuova 1237 Vespri siciliani 1282 Dante's classic ¿The Divine Comedy¿ may be good reading on these battles. 
 Web Site:  The Dante Society 
 Battle of Vittoria 1248 Wednesday, 3/16/05, 6:12 AM 
 The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his ¿Ghibelline¿ forces laid siege to Parma but were defeated at Vittoria, where they were camped, by the forces of the pro-Papal ¿Guelf¿ cities of Lombardy. The Imperial plan to dominate Italy collapsed as a result. This site is in Italian. 
 From: Outside Parma 
 Web Site:  Battle of Vittoria 1248 
 search under "battaglia di" for Italian battles Wednesday, 3/16/05, 6:04 AM 
 Battle of Taginae 552 Wednesday, 12/29/04, 9:42 AM 
 The Battle of Taginae brought an end to the long struggle between Byzantium and the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy. In the Spring of 552, Justinian's eunuch general Narses recruited a large army of Byzantines (East Romans) and barbarians, including Lombards and Heruli. He moved down the Via Flaminia, heading for Rome. The Ostrogothic king, Totila, advanced to intercept him at Taginae (the modern Gualdo Tadino). He arrived in time to force Narses to fight, or else make a perilous retreat back over the Apennines. 
 Web Site:  Battle of Taginae 552 
 more battles in Italy and its waters Thursday, 10/21/04, 9:51 AM 
 Italian waters Sicilian waters Bc36 Naulochus Octavian defeats Sextus Pompey Italian waters Sicilian waters Messina Bc260 Mylae Punic naval defeat Italian waters Sicilian waters Palermo Bc249 Drepana Roman naval defeat Italy 1701 Carpi Austrian victory Italy 1701 Chiari Austrian victory Italy 1702 Santa Vittoria French victory Italy 1702 Luzzara Indecisive engagement Italy 1704 Castelnuovo French victory Italy 1705 Cassano French won Italy 1706 Calcinate Vendome won Italy 1706 Torino Eugene won Italy 1706 Castiglione French won Italy Beneventum Bc275 Benevento Romans defeat Pyrrhus Italy Capua 1266 Benevento Italy Naples Bc340 Neapolis Latins defeated by Romans Italy Naples Caudine Forks Samnite victory Italy Rome Bc390 River Allia Celts win and sack Rome Italy Rome 0312 Milvian Bridge Constantine defeats Maxentius Italy Rome 1268 Tagliacozzo Italy Apulia Heraclea Pyrrhus defeats Romans Italy Apulia Bc71 Spartacans defeated and crucified Italy Apulia Ausculum Bc279 Ausculum Pyrrhus wins but is unable to take Rome Italy Lombardy Milan Bc101 Vercellae Marius defeats the Cimbri Italy Lombardy Milan 1176 Legnano Italy Lombardy Milano 0259 Mediolanum Allemani tribe defeated Italy Lombardy Verona 0312 Verona Constantine defeats Maxentius Italy Piedmont Turin 0312 Taurinorum Constantine defeats Maxentius Italy Po valley 1702 Cremona French victory Italy Po valley Cremona 0069 Cremona I Otho defeated by Vitellius during the ¿year of 4 Emperors¿ Italy Po valley Cremona 0069 Cremona II Vespasian¿s Danube legions defeat Vitellius Italy Romagna Ravenna Bc207 Metaurus R Punic defeat Italy Romagna Ravenna 0552 Busta Gallorum Italy Sicily Bc256 Ecnomus Punic HQ captured after the battle Italy Sicily Palermo Bc241 Lilybaeum Romans defeat Carthage Italy Sicily Palermo Bc251 Panormus Roman Victory Over Carthage 
 From: Italy 
   Monday, 10/11/04, 8:29 AM 
 Mario Ruffino Wednesday, 1/14/04, 10:58 AM 
 I am looking for a story about an Italian Soldier who heldback an invading army buy causing avalanches some where in the Italian Alps many years ago. I have seen a picture of the monement dedicateted to this soldier which shows him nealing down on a ledge looking down this snow covered valley. Can someone help me find this story. Mario 
 From: America 
 The Kingdom of Italy Monday, 12/29/03, 4:08 AM 
 "The Kingdom of Italy" was one of Napoleon's most loyal allies and provided him with some of his best soldiers. This site tells the story of these brave men, their leaders, uniforms, organisation and the campaigns and battles in which they fought. 
 From: Northern Italy 
 Web Site:  The Kingdom of Italy 
 Polybius and other Roman sources Wednesday, 7/9/03, 7:06 AM 
 a major site on Roman antiquity, including a photogazetteer of Roman and Etruscan cities and monuments, a site for teaching yourself to read Latin inscriptions, the complete Latin texts of Pliny the Elder's Natural History, Quintus Curtius' Histories of Alexander the Great, the Saturnalia of Macrobius, and Censorinus' de Die Natali; the Architecture of Vitruvius and the Aqueducts and the Stratagems of Frontinus in both Latin and English; complete English translations of Polybius and of Cassius Dio's History of Rome; Rodolfo Lanciani's book Pagan and Christian Rome, Christian Hülsen's book on the Roman Forum, Thomas Codrington's book on Roman roads in Britain, George Dennis's Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, large chunks of Platner's Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome and Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, a fair amount of Ptolemy's Geography, various maps of the Roman Empire, and quite a bit more. 
 From: the city of seven hills!! 
 Web Site:  LacusCurtius 
 Italy bc814 - bc241 Monday, 6/30/03, 3:12 AM 
 From: Italy 
 Web Site:  Barca 
 The Greeks in Italy and Sicily Friday, 6/27/03, 9:33 AM 
 Battles of: Alalia, Corsica bc535 Arieia, nr Rome 504bc Cumae, nr Naples,524bc ¿ defeat of the Etruscans Vivara nr Naples 475bc Dasteira 66bc + the campaigns of Pyrrhus of Epirus in Italy and Sicily + Greek campaigns vs Carthage in Sicily + wars of Syracuse and others in Sicily 
 Saracen Archers in Southern Italy Tuesday, 6/3/03, 10:29 AM 
 In early twelfth century , as in the rest of the Continent, crossbowmen were being increasingly used in place of archers. But an important exception to this was represented by the presence of Muslims, whose culture contained a strong archery tradition, in the Norman-Swabian armies. The Normans, soon after the conquest of Sicily was complete, began using Sicilian Saracen mounted and foot archers as auxiliary troops: in 1076 they were included in the Guiscard army at the seizure of Salerno; in 1091, they followed Count Roger to besiege Cosenza; in 1094 to Castrovillari; in 1096 to that of Amalfi; in 1098 the strong army of the Count that crossed the Messina Strait was composed largely of Saracens. From 1130 King Roger II used Pedites Saraceni in his Royal Guard during the fight against rebellious nobles, in order to sustain the foundation of his Regnum Siciliae. 
 From: Southern Italy 
 Web Site:  Giovanni Amatuccio & De Re Militarii 
 The battle of Cannae Tuesday, 4/1/03, 5:40 AM 
 From: Central Italy 
 Web Site:  The battle of Cannae 
 uniforms of the Italian war of independence 1859 Monday, 3/31/03, 6:33 AM 
 12 fine prints of uniforms here, including the army of Piedmont-Sardinia. 
 From: lombardy 
 Web Site:  uniforms of the Italian war of independence 1859 
 the Norman Conquest of the Two Sicilies Monday, 1/6/03, 3:07 AM 
 Battles of the Norman Conquest of the Two Sicilies Montemaggiore Cannae Misilmeri Cerami Serlo's Rock See JJ Norwich "The Normans in Sicily" See also the War of the Sicilian Vespers 
 From: Sicily and southern Italy 
 Web Site:  the Norman Conquest of the Two Sicilies 
 corey Thursday, 12/5/02, 11:20 AM 
 From: spokan 
 Web Site:  ds 
 Email:  5424 
 Roman military and naval sites Tuesday, 11/19/02, 9:42 AM 
 a definitive collection of annotated links 
 Web Site:  Roman military and naval sites 
 La Furia Francese: The Italian War of 1859 Tuesday, 11/5/02, 11:47 AM 
 The war of 1859 pitted the Piedmontese army and it's French allies against the Austrians in Northern Italy. War broke out when the Austrians reacted to deliberate Piedmontese provocation and declared war. This mistake enabled Cavour, the artful Piedmontese politician, to call his French allies to Piedmont's 'defense'. The fighting was all in northern Italy. The first phase was a series of small encounters mainly between the Piedmontese and the Austrians. The Piedmontese were greatly outnumbered and stood on the defensive awaiting the arrival of the French at the front. This was permitted by the incompetent Austrian command. The second phase commenced when the main body of the French Army arrived. The allies then fought two battles, Magenta and Solferino. Defeat at these battles was enough to convince the Austrians that it was time to make peace, despite the expected Prussian intervention on Austria's behalf. The war provided prestige for the regime of Napoleon III. It started the process that would see the King of Piedmont elevated to become the King of Italy in 1861. As an interesting aside the suffering of the wounded at Solferino inspired Henri Durant to found the Red Cross Organization. 
 From: Northern Italy 
 Web Site:  La Furia Francese: The Italian War of 1859 
 the Battle of Custozza 1866 Tuesday, 11/5/02, 11:39 AM 
 the only major engagement in Northern Italy of Garibaldi's campaign of 1866, between Austrians and Piedmontese 
 From: Northern Italy 
 Web Site:  the Battle of Custozza 1866 
 The Roman Army Wednesday, 10/30/02, 12:56 PM 
 Web Site:  Gary Brueggeman 
 The Alpine front in the Great War Wednesday, 10/30/02, 12:40 PM 
 On the 23rd of May 1915 the Italian Ambassador had presented his government's declaration of war on the Habsburg state at the Ballhausplatz. The aged Emperor and King Franz Joseph announced this momentous turn of events to his people. He complained bitterly of Italy's breach of faith, unable to contain his anger for an ally of thirty years standing who had sold out to the highest bidder - the Entente powers in the hope of gaining territory at Austria's expense. Italy was of course the hereditary enemy of the Habsburg monarchy and certainly no new opponent of the empire. The Emperor invoked memories of past victories: Novara, Mortara, Custoza and Lissa and of the spirit of Austria's former heroes: Field Marshal Radetzky, Archduke Albrecht and Admiral Tegethoff. Not only did the German population of Austria proper appreciate the danger to the Tyrol, that most loyal of Austrian provinces but the fact that Bozen, German for centuries and also Trient and Triest were also in Italy's sight. The Hungarians, always troublesome partners in the monarchy were equally outraged by Italy's conduct. Even greater was the animosity shown to Italy by the peoples of Slovenia and Dalmatia who would be the most affected by any Italian territorial gains in Carniola and on the Adriatic coast. 
 From: Dolomites and around 
 Web Site:  The Alpine front in the Great War 
 Major Roman battles Wednesday, 10/30/02, 10:54 AM 
 Web Site:  Major Roman battles 
 The battle of Montaperti, September 4th, 1260 Wednesday, 10/30/02, 10:40 AM 
 In the thirteenth century, Italy as we know it today did not exist. In the South, the Kingdom of Sicily (which incorporated most of southern Italy) was ruled by King Manfred, the illegitimate son of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Central Italy was under the nominal rule of the Pope, who vied with the Emperor for the hearts and minds of Christian Europe. But the north of Italy was a fractious and shifting collection of city states, ruled by petty tyrants and warlords and dominated by the competing interests of Pope and Emperor. In 1258, the Guelphs succeeded in expelling from Florence the last of the important Ghibellines, who fled to their brethren in Sienna. The Guelphs followed this victory with the murder of Tesauro Beccharia, Archbishop of Vallambrosa, who was accused of plotting with the Ghibellines for their return. The rivalry came to a head two years later when the Florentines, supported by their Tuscan allies, moved an enormous army, 35,000 strong, towards Sienna. To defend themselves, the Siennese called for the help of King Manfred of Sicily, who provided a contingent of crack German cavalry. Altogether, they could only raise an army of 20,000 to face their foes, and the situation looked grim. But the Ghibellines of Sienna had a plan, a plan that was to epitomise the bitter warfare of the time. A plan that would be immortalised for all time in Dante's terrifying verse. The two armies clashed at the hill of Montaperti, outside Sienna, on the morning of September 4th, 1260. 
 From: Sienna 
 Web Site:  The battle of Montaperti, September 4th, 1260 
 Matilda, warrior Lady of Tuscany Wednesday, 10/30/02, 9:54 AM 
 Matilda of Tuscany held a network of castles on the north face of the Apennines. They were positioned to cover access to all major trans-Apennine routes and to communicate with and mutually support one another. Although she lost the battle of Volta in 1080, she ensured that, during the campaign of 1081- 84, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV did not have use of the trans-Apennine routes. Her military career culminated in the rout of Henry IV¿s army in the battle before Canossa in 1092. 
 From: Tuscany 
 Web Site:  Matilda, warrior Lady of Tuscany 
 The battle of the Allia 387bc Wednesday, 10/30/02, 8:08 AM 
 Rome was in midst of its early expansion with wars against its neighbors, notably the Etruscans in the 5th century BC. At the end of the century it was engaged in a bitter struggle with Veii, a strongly fortified Etruscan city. The great Roman hero and dictator, Camillus, conducted a long siege that ended in 396 with Rome destroying Veii and annexing all its territory. Thus it was, that the sudden arrival of the Gauli (Celts) was such a stunning blow. 
 From: italy 
 Web Site:  The battle of the Allia 387bc 
 Napoleons Italian allies Wednesday, 5/15/02, 12:55 PM 
 The Kingdom of Italy was founded in 1805 from a collection of smaller states in the north and west of modern Italy that Napoleon had wrested from Austrian control. During its ten year existence the new nation contributed thousands of men to Napoleon's armies, proving to be some of his most loyal and dependable allies. This site seeks to tell the story of these brave men: their leaders, their uniforms, their organisation and the campaigns and battles in which they fought. 
 From: North Italy 
 Web Site:  Napoleons Italian allies 
 The Italian army in WW1 Thursday, 11/22/01, 7:43 AM 
 an extensive site on some of the most fascinating campaigns of WW1, involving the Alpini and Bersaglieri lugging mountain guns onto the peaks of the Dolomites, and 11 successive battles fought on the Isonzo River line in NE Italy. 
 Web Site:  The Italian army in WW1 
A Medici warrior before their palace in Florence
light tank of WW2
Sirmione castle on Lake Garda
Venetian warrior on the quayside at San Marco
Malcesine castle on Lake Garda
Cosimo Medici in Florence

double click here for maps of three battles of the C16 italian wars
click here for 1789 map
austrians defeat italians at lissa in the adriatic sea 1866
Garibaldi militia 1935
Italian troops at Ain Zara inin Libya 1911
clikc here for Napoleonic Neapolitans
standard of the grand duchy of tuscany
standard of the duchy of modena
click here for larger 1789 map
click here for larger 1470 map
The Medici Angelo di Cosimo
Marignano 1515
Savoyard regt Desportes 1706
napoleons campaigns in north italy
ensign of the Piedmontese Republic 1800
Flags of the Maritime Republics  - clockwise from top left - Venice, Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi
armoured cruiser AMALFI sunk in 1915