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Bismarck approaches Napoleon III's carriage 1871
Infantry bugler 1914
C18 infantry
Infantry of Louis XIV - the white coats were of natural wool
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Poilu 1915 - 18
Renault tank of WW1
Zouave 1871
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Napoleons infantry in greatcoats
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For French history to c1500 - see  Web Site:  Xenophon Group
 

French army of WW1 Tuesday, 12/5/06, 8:30 AM
 
French soldiers, referred to as "Poilus" (hairies), went to war wearing a near suicidal costume for the modern battlefield. This uniform was made up of bright red trousers and a blue double-breasted overcoat complete with shiny brass buttons and tails! A smart rakish kepi (think of the US civil war) was worn instead of a helmet. French cavalry wore the same obsolete design of shining brass accented polished breastplates with matching plumed helmets that napoleons cavalry wore at waterloo 99 years before. These exotic uniforms even paled in comparison to those of the colonial units drawn from Africa. In 1915 a more sedate uniform and helmet was issued after the flower of the army had been lost along the Marne and the Anise. The Achilles heel of the world war one French army was in the poor nature of its armaments. The standard infantry rifle, the 8mm 1893 Lebel rifle was inaccurate and its wartime replacement, the 1915 Berthier was slow to take the field. French machineguns including the 1907 St Etienne, 1909 Hotchkiss, and the Chauchat light machine gun were held in such poor light due to mechanical unreliability that the government had problems even giving them away after the war. Heavy artillery was lacking in numbers but the excellent 75mm light gun helped to alleviate this fact.
 
Web Site:  Suite 101
 

French regional map Monday, 11/20/06, 4:00 AM
 
NB. PACA = Provence/Alpes/Cote d'Azure
 
Web Site:  Wiki
 

French battles Thursday, 11/9/06, 10:11 AM
 
Battles fought by the French worldwide ¿ from Haiti and Mexico to Siam, Egypt, and China!!
 
Web Site:  Wikipedia
 

French battlefield map Monday, 10/9/06, 7:10 AM
 
1M908 ¿1 : 1 000 000 FRANCE LIEUX DE BATAILLES¿ Difficult to find on the website: possibly listed amongst TOURIST MAPS
 
Web Site:  IGN
 

Battle of Enguinegatte 1479 Monday, 10/9/06, 7:04 AM
 
..between French and HRE, is sometimes shown as GUINEGATE
 
From: Pas de Calais
 

Bataille de Fréteval 1194 Monday, 6/26/06, 10:42 AM
 
Le nom, "Fracta Vallis" au Xème siècle, traduit la présence de l'éperon barré commandant un coude de la rivière (site du château). Occupation préhistorique et gallo-romaine. Ancienne ville fortifiée. Le donjon du château, construit fin XIème siècle ou début XIIème siècle par le comte de Blois, marquait un point stratégique entre le Blésois et leurs possessions de Châteaudun et Chartres ; il fut ruiné pendant la guerre de Cent Ans. Fréteval fut le théâtre d'une bataille en 1194 où Philippe Auguste fut défait par Richard Coeur de Lion.
 
From: Vendome
Web Site:  France Balade
 

Parisian chronology Monday, 6/26/06, 10:36 AM
 
Web Site:  Parisian chronology
 

French online atlas Monday, 6/26/06, 10:34 AM
 
Web Site:  Quid
 

Some Dark Age battles in France Monday, 6/26/06, 10:14 AM
 
St Lo 890 St Omer 890 Siege of Verdun 985 Ambush Nr Laon 994 Storm of Nantes 992 Senlis 949 Saucourt (Picardie) 881 Soissons 923 Pontlevoy 1016 Rheims 880 Conquereuil 992 25m north of Nantes Chalons Poitiers Tours
 

French & Spanish infantry uniforms in 1694 Tuesday, 4/18/06, 8:44 AM
 
Web Site:  Nec Pluribus Impar
 

Battle of Strasbourg (Argentoratum) 357 Monday, 3/20/06, 10:38 AM
 
Between the forces of the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate and the Alamanni led by King Chnodomar. As the battle commenced, the German infantry, anxious not to be abandoned, convinced the cavalry to dismount and fight on foot. Despite this disadvantage, the Alamanni succeeded in driving back the Roman cavalry. Additionally, the Alamanni infantry, led by a band of nobles, broke through the Roman center. However, Julian rallied his cavalry, which returned to the fight, and the Roman Primani legion plugged the gap in the Roman center. The Alamanni soon broke and retreated. Many were slaughtered as they ran from the battlefield. Others drowned in the Rhine. Chnodomar was captured. Reports place the German dead at 6000. The Romans only lost 247 men. The Alamanni were driven beyond the Rhine. As a result, Alsace was not ruled as part of Alamannia, but became a disputed territory for more than 1500 years, up to 1945 when its status as French région was settled.
 
From: Alsace
Web Site:  Answers.Com
 

The Battle of Valmy 1792 Tuesday, 3/7/06, 11:25 AM
 
"The Duke of Valmy (for Kellermann, when made one of Napoleon's military peers in 1802, took his title from this same battle-field) had participated, during his long and active career, in the gaining of many a victory far more immediately dazzling than the one the remembrance of which he thus cherished. He had been present at many a scene of carnage, where blood flowed in deluges, compared with which the libations of slaughter poured out at Valmy would have seemed scant and insignificant. But he rightly estimated the paramount importance of the battle with which he thus wished his appellation while living, and his memory after his death, to be identified. The successful resistance which the raw Carmagnole levies and the disorganized relics of the old monarchy's army then opposed to the combined hosts and chosen leaders of Prussia, Austria, and the French refugee noblesse, determined at once and forever the belligerent character of the revolution. The raw artisans and tradesmen, the clumsy burghers, the base mechanics, and low peasant-churls, as it had been the fashion to term the middle and lower classes in France, found that they could face cannon- balls, pull triggers, and cross bayonets without having been drilled into military machines, and without being officered by scions of noble houses. They awoke to the consciousness of their own instinctive soldiership. They at once acquired confidence in themselves and in each other. and that confidence soon grew into a spirit of unbounded audacity and ambition. " From the cannonade of Valmy may be dated the commencement of that career of victory which carried their armies to Vienna and the Kremlin."
 
From: NE France
Web Site:  Creasy
 

Battle of Orleans 1428 - 9 Tuesday, 3/7/06, 11:21 AM
 
"In the autumn of 1428, the English, who were already masters of all France north of the Loire, prepared their forces for the conquest of the southern provinces, which yet adhered to the cause of the dauphin. The city of Orleans, on the banks of that river, was looked upon as the last stronghold of the French national party. If the English could once obtain possession of it, their victorious progress through the residue of the kingdom seemed free from any serious obstacle. Accordingly, the Earl of Salisbury, one of the bravest and most experienced of the English generals, who had been trained under Henry V., marched to the attack of the all-important city. and, after reducing several places of inferior consequence in the neighborhood, appeared with his army before its walls on the 12th of October, 1428"
 
From: Loire Valley
Web Site:  Creasy
 

Battle of Tours Tuesday, 3/7/06, 11:19 AM
 
"THE broad tract of champaign country which intervenes between the cities of Poitiers and Tours is principally composed of a succession of rich pasture lands, which are traversed and fertilized by the Cher, the Creuse, the Vienne, the Claine, the Indre, and other tributaries of the River Loire. Here and there the ground swells into picturesque eminences and occasionally a belt of forest land, a brown heath, or a clustering series of vineyards breaks the monontony of the widespread meadows ; but the general character of the land is that of a grassy plain, and it seems naturally adapted for the evolutions of numerous armies, especially of those vast bodies of cavalry which principally decided the fate of nations during the centuries that followed the downfall of Rome, and preceded the consolidation of the modern European powers. This region has been signalized by more than one memorable conflict ; but it is principally interesting to the historian by having been the scene of the great victory won by Charles Martel over the Saracens, A.D. 732, which gave a decisive check to the career of Arab conquest in Western Europe, rescued Christendom from Islam, preserved the relics of ancient and the germs of modern civilization, and re-established the old superiority of the Indo-European over the Semitic family of mankind"
 
Web Site:  Creasy
 

Battle of Chalons Tuesday, 3/7/06, 11:18 AM
 
"A BROAD expanse of plains, the Campi Catalaunici of the ancients, spreads far and wide around the city of Châlons, in the north east of France. The long rows of poplars, through which the River Marne winds its way, and a few thinly scattered villages, are almost the only objects that vary the monotonous aspect of the greater part of this region. But about five miles from Châlons, near the little hamlets of Chape and Cuperly, the ground is indented and heaped up in ranges of grassy mounds and trenches, which attest the work of man' s hands in ages past, and which, to the practised eye, demonstrate that this quiet spot has once been the fortified position of a huge military host. Local tradition gives to these ancient earth-works the name of Attila' s Camp. Nor is there any reason to question the correctness of the title, or to doubt that behind these very ramparts it was that 1,400 years ago the most powerful heathen king that ever ruled in Europe mustered the remnants of his vast army, which had striven on these plains against the Christian soldiery of Toulouse and Rome. Here it was that Attila prepared to resist to the death his victors in the field ; and here he heaped up the treasures of his camp in one vast pile, which was to be his funeral pyre should his camp be stormed"
 
Web Site:  Creasy
 

Frankish battles Tuesday, 3/7/06, 4:15 AM
 
¿ Battle of Fontenay (841) ¿ Battle of the Frigidus L Battle of Leuven P ¿ Battle of Pavia (773) R ¿ Battle of Roncevaux Pass S ¿ Battle of Soissons (486) T ¿ Battle of Tolbiac
 
From: France and around
Web Site:  Wikipedia
 

Fifty odd battles involving France and/or the French Wednesday, 3/1/06, 10:47 AM
 
¿ Battle of Villafranca ¿ Goletta, Tunisia 29 June 1609 ¿ Action of March 1667 ¿ Action of 1678 ¿ Action of 29 June 1694 ¿ Action of 16 April 1695 ¿ Action of 21 October 1707 ¿ Action of 12 October 1798 ¿ Battle of Ackia ¿ Action of March 1677 ¿ Battle of Agnadello ¿ First Battle of the Aisne ¿ Third Battle of the Aisne ¿ Battle of Arras (1654) ¿ Second Battle of Artois ¿ Third Battle of Artois ¿ Battle of Bassignano ¿ Battle of Baugé ¿ Battle of Bergen ¿ Battle of Brignais ¿ Battle of Brunswick ¿ Battle of Château-Thierry (1814) ¿ Battle of Cocherel ¿ Battle of Dreux ¿ Battle of Friedlingen ¿ Battle of Furnes ¿ Battle of Isly ¿ Battle of Meaux ¿ Battle of Modovi ¿ Battle of Morlaix ¿ Battle of Möerskirch ¿ Battle of Palestro ¿ Battle of Pozolo ¿ Battle of Renty ¿ Battle of Rocoux ¿ Battle of Roosebeke ¿ Battle of Rottofreddo ¿ Battle of Smala ¿ Battle of Verdun (1792) ¿ Battle of Wogastisburg ¿ Battle of Zusmarshausen Battle of Bergen (Seven Years' War) ¿ Battle of Bicocca ¿ Siege of Boulogne ¿ Battle of Bouvines ¿ Battle of Bremule ¿ Battle of Cassel 1328 ¿ Battle of Cassel 1677 ¿ Battle of Casteldelfino ¿ Battle of Ceresole ¿ Battle of Cerignola ¿ Battle of Chernaya River ¿ Battle of Denain ¿ Operation Diadem ¿ Battle of the Dunes (1658) ¿ First Battle of the Marne ¿ Battle of Fornovo ¿ Battle of Fort Beauséjour ¿ Battle of Fort Duquesne ¿ Battle of Fort Frontenac ¿ Battle of Fort Ligonier ¿ Battle of Fort Niagara ¿ Battle of Fort Oswego ¿ Battle of Fort William Henry ¿ Battle of Freiburg ¿ Battle of Gisors ¿ Battle of Gravelines (1558) ¿ Battle of Hochstadt ¿ Battle of Honnecourt ¿ Battle of Ivry ¿ Battle of Krefeld ¿ Battle of La Rochelle ¿ Battle of Landen ¿ Battle of Las Hormigas ¿ Battle of Le Cateau ¿ Battle of Lens ¿ Siege of Maastricht ¿ Battle of Madonna del Olmo ¿ Battle of Magenta ¿ Battle of Malakoff ¿ Battle of Marignano ¿ Battle of Maysalun Battle of Minden ¿ Battle of Montebello (1859) ¿ Battle of Najera (Navarette) ¿ Battle of Novara (1513) ¿ Battle of Nördlingen (1645) ¿ Siege of Padua ¿ Battle of Palermo ¿ Battle of Pampeluna ¿ Battle of Pavia ¿ Battle of Piacenza ¿ Battle of Porto Praya ¿ Battle of Providien ¿ Battle of Puebla ¿ Battle of Quebec (1691) ¿ Battle of Ramillies ¿ Battle of Raucoux (1746) ¿ Battle of Ravenna (1512) ¿ Battle of Rocroi ¿ Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs ¿ Siege of Sancerre ¿ Battle of Schellenberg ¿ Second Battle of Mohács ¿ Second Battle of the Marne ¿ Battle of Seneffe ¿ Siege of Sevastopol (1854) ¿ Battle of Soissons (1918) ¿ Battle of Soissons (923) ¿ Battle of the Solent ¿ Battle of Solferino ¿ Battle of South Foreland ¿ Battle of the Spurs ¿ Battle of St. Quentin (1557) ¿ Battle of St. Quentin (1914) ¿ Battle of St. Lucia ¿ Battle of Steenkerque ¿ Battle of Stromboli ¿ Battle of the Thousand Islands ¿ Battle of Ticonderoga (1759) ¿ Battle of Toulon (1744) ¿ Battle of Tournai ¿ Battle of Trocadero ¿ Battle of Val-ès-Dunes ¿ Battle of Vertières ¿ Battle of Warburg ¿ Battle of Zhennan Pass
 
Web Site:  Wikipedia
 

Battle of Nancy 1477 Wednesday, 3/1/06, 9:59 AM
 
1477 AD Charles the Bald Killed - The Battle of Nancy is won by Swiss pikement fighting for Louis XI. Charles the Bald, the last of the Burgundy claimants to the throne, is killed in the battle. This ends for a while the incessant struggles for the French crown.
 

Battles of the Hundred Years War Tuesday, 11/1/05, 11:04 AM
 
NOT IN ANY ORDER; Fresnay Roosebeke Castillon Sluys Navarete Crecy Montiel Formigny Espagnols-sur-Mer Eymet Poitiers Mons ¿en- Vimeu Cravant Verneuil Brignais St-Jacques Monargis The Herrings Patay Dunois¿ defeat of Bedford, circa 1430
 
From: France
Web Site:  Timelines
 

Misc battles in France Friday, 7/29/05, 5:48 AM
 
Bataille de Bléneau Bataille de Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier Bataille de la Roche Derrien. Battle of Verneuil.
 
From: France
 

The Battle of the Sabis or the Sambre, 57 BC Wednesday, 7/20/05, 9:16 AM
 
The Battle of the Sabis, also known as the Battle of the Sambre, was fought in 57 BC between the forces of the Roman Republic and an association of Belgic tribes in Gaul. Julius Caesar, commanding the Roman forces, was surprised and nearly defeated. However, a combination of determined defense, skilled generalship, and the timely arrival of reinforcements allowed the Romans to turn a near- defeat into a crushing victory.
 
From: Belgium
Web Site:  Yotor
 

The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis 507 AD Wednesday, 7/20/05, 9:03 AM
 
Spring 507, between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths of Alaric II, the conqueror of Spain. Clovis and Anastasius I of the Byzantine Empire agreed that each would attack the Goths, the Franks crossed the Loire. Clovis himself killed Alaric. The battle forced the Goths to retreat to Sepimania, which they continued to hold. The success at Vouillé allowed the Franks to control the southwestern part of France. Toulouse was taken. Alaric's illegitimate son Gesalic (509-511) tried to regroup at Narbonne, but he was deposed and ultimately killed when Narbonne was temporarily taken by Burgundian allies of the Franks (until 511). The Franks might have pushed farther, if Theodoric the Great had not intervened.
 
From: in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at Poitiers
 

Mediaeval French battles Tuesday, 7/12/05, 10:32 AM
 
From: France
Web Site:  The War Tourist
 

Some battles in Brittany Tuesday, 7/12/05, 9:53 AM
 
Canao defeats the Franks near Vannes c 635 Nominoe defeats Charles the Bald at Ballon near Redon, 22nd November 845 Alan I the Great defeats the Vikings at Questembert 888AD Alan II Barbertorte beat the Vikings at St Brieuc 936, Nantes (a Viking base) 937, and Trans 939, driving them from Brittany.
 
Web Site:  Battle of Trans at Wikipedia
 

Napoleonic battles Monday, 7/11/05, 5:40 AM
 
Web Site:  The War Tourist
 

chronology of battles in France Monday, 7/11/05, 5:19 AM
 
Web Site:  the war tourist
 

The battles of Arthur mab Uter Wednesday, 7/6/05, 8:48 AM
 
The elusive half-mythical Dark Age figure of Arthur was King or warlord of the Romano-British, and may have fought battles in Gaul as well as Britain. His aliases in history are thought to be Aurthuile, Artorius & Riothamus.
 
From: Avallon in Burgundy?
Web Site:  The War Tourist
 

battles of the Vendéean Rebellion Friday, 6/10/05, 10:10 AM
 
1793/08/14 Battle of Lucon Vendéean Rebellion Republican victory Republican France Vendée Sandoz/Tunq d'Elbée 1793/08/25 Combat of Marseille Republican France victory Republican France Marseille Carteaux 1793/11/14 - 1793/11/15 Battle of Granville Vendéean Rebellion Republican France victory Republican France Vendée Varin/Peyre Rochejaquelin
 
From: Vendée
 

Battles of the Armée de la Loire 1870-1 Thursday, 6/9/05, 7:24 AM
 
..during the second half of the Franco-Prussian War: ¿ 20 septembre : Les avant-gardes de l'armée allemande s'avancent dans la direction d'Orléans ¿ 5 octobre : Engagement de Toury ¿ 10 octobre : Combat d'Artenay ¿ 11 octobre : Occupation d'Orléans par les bavarois - ( monument ) ¿ 18 octobre : Combat de Châteaudun - ( monument ) ¿ 24 octobre : Occupation de Chartres ¿ 7 novembre : Engagement de cavalerie à Saint- Laurent-des-Bois ¿ 8 novembre : Evacuation d'Orléans par les bavarois ¿ 9 novembre : Bataille de Coulmiers - ( description ) - ( monument ) ¿ 14 novembre : Engagement de cavalerie à Viabon ¿ 17 novembre : Combat de Houdan et de Châteauneuf ¿ 18 novembre : Combat de Ardelles et de Digny ¿ 21 novembre : Engagement sur Nogent-le- Rotrou ¿ 24 novembre : Combats du Theil et de Ladon ¿ 28 novembre : Bataille de Beaune-la-Rolande - ( monument ) ¿ 1e décembre : Combats de Villepion et de Nonneville ¿ 2 décembre : Combats de Loigny ( description ) - ( monument), Lumeau et de Poupry ¿ 3 décembre : Combats d'Artenay et de Chevilly ¿ 4 décembre : Evacuation d'Orléans - ( description ) ¿ 6 décembre : Occupation de Meung par la cavalerie prussienne ¿ 7 décembre : Combat de Messas - ( description ) ¿ 8 décembre : Combats de Lorges et de Beaumont. Occupation de Beaugency - ( description ) ¿ 9 décembre : Combats d'Ourcelles et de Tavers ¿ 10 décembre : Combat de Villejouan ¿ 11 décembre : Combat de Villermain et de Séris ¿ 14 décembre : Combat de Fréteval ¿ 15 décembre : Bataille de Vendôme ¿ 17 décembre : Combat de Droué ¿ 20 décembre : Combat de Monnaie ¿ 27 décembre : Combat de Saint-Quentin ( description ) et de Montoire ¿ 3 janvier : Occupation de Nogent-le-Rotrou par le général Rousseau ¿ 3 janvier : Combats de Villeporcher et de Lancé ¿ 6 janvier : Combat de la Fourche, engagement à Azay, combat de Villiers ¿ 7 janvier : Combats du Theil et de Saint- Amand ¿ 8 janvier : Combats de Vancé et Ruillé-sur- le-Loir ¿ 9 janvier : Combats du Connéré, de Thorigné, Brives, Chahaignes et d'Ardenay ¿ 10 janvier : Combats de la Chapelle Saint- Rémy, Saint-Mars-de-la-Brière, Parigné-l'Evêque et Changé ¿ 11 janvier : Bataille du Mans - ( monument - description ) ¿ 12 janvier : Retraite de la 2e armée de la Loire ¿ 14 janvier : Combat de Chassillé ¿ 15 janvier : Combats de Sillé-le-Guillaume, Saint-Jean-sur-Erve et Alençon ¿ 18 janvier : Combat de Saint-Mélaine - ( monument - description )
 
From: France
Web Site:  Battles of the Armée de la Loire 1870-1
 

Agincourt Monday, 6/6/05, 6:50 AM
 
A new book by Anne Curry of Southampton University claims that the English were indeed outnumbered at the battle of Agincourt, but only by a factor of 3:2, as revealed by the recruitment records of both sides. Shakespeare and others created myths around the battle for reasons of English patriotism.
 

Carcassonne & the Albigensian Crusade Thursday, 3/17/05, 7:39 AM
 
nice site with pics of some war machines, plus historical background
 
From: SW France
Web Site:  Carcassonne
 

Soisson 922 Wednesday, 3/16/05, 7:17 AM
 
¿In 922 a group of nobles, dissatisfied with Charles the Simple, revolted and elected Odo's brother Robert as king. Robert I (922-923) was killed fighting his rival at Soisson, but Charles lost the battle and was imprisoned¿
 

The battle of Bouvines 1214 Wednesday, 3/16/05, 6:42 AM
 
..the victory was gained by Philip Augustus (1180- 1223), backed by a coalition of feudal nobles, over the Emperor Otto IV. This was the first event in French history which called forth a movement of national solidarity around a French king.
 
From: Ponthieu
Web Site:  De Re Militarii
 

Battles of Louis VI ¿the Fat¿ 1108-37 Wednesday, 3/16/05, 6:26 AM
 
Louis spent much of his reign riding around the Paris area putting down rebels in the Royal demesne, fighting engagements at Livry, Gournay, Lagny, Montmorency, Luzarches, and Meaux.
 
From: Ile de Paris
 

Battle of Fontenoy/la Bataille de Fontenoy (841) Thursday, 3/10/05, 5:57 AM
 
This was one of the conflicts over inheritances which periodically plagued the Carolingian Empire. Louis the Pious died in 840 with the succession unresolved among his sons: Lothar, Louis, Pepin II and Charles, who had each however been allocated some territory and the noble followings therefrom. They made an appointment to settle the issue by force of arms, on a battlefield in the flat cornfields on the plateau of Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Autun in Burgundy (NOT the site of The Battle of Fontenoy 1745, which was fought in Belgium near Tournai). They commenced by saying a Mass and this set the tone for the chivalric battles of the centuries to come. Charles and Louis were, allies, while Lothar was allied with Pepin II. Details of the battle are sketchy. The armies met at Fontenoy on June 21 but fought only on June 25. The battle started with Lothar having the upper hand but turned when Count Guerin of Chalon ¿ whose County in Burgundy spanned the River Rhone - entered the conflict on the side of Charles. Lothar continued the fight but the brothers finally came to an agreement on the partition of their father¿s kingdom at Verdun in 843. Lothar retained the title of Holy Roman Emperor and received a strip of land extending from the Low countries in the north, down the west side of the Saone/Rhone and into Italy. Louis received Bavaria, which later became Germany and Charles received west Francia, which ultimately became France. Pepin II, being on the losing side, was cut out of the division. The battle site is marked by a monument and a local museum.
 
From: Burgundy
Web Site:  Tom Oberhofer
 

The Frankish kingdoms in maps Wednesday, 3/9/05, 9:43 AM
 
Web Site:  Örjan Martinsson
 

Some battles in France Wednesday, 3/9/05, 9:24 AM
 
¿ Battle of the Marne, belleau wood, chateau- thierry, marne river ¿ a World War I battle in northwestern France where the Allies defeated the Germans in 1918 ¿ Chalons, Chalons-sur-Marne ¿ the battle in which Attila the Hun was defeated by the Romans and Visigoths in 451 ¿ Crecy, battle of Crecy ¿ the first decisive battle of the Hundred Years' War; in 1346 the English under Edward III defeated the French under King Philip of Valois ¿ Dunkirk, Dunkerque ¿ a city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire ¿ Ivry, battle of Ivry, Ivry la Bataille ¿ a battle (1590) in which the Huguenots under Henry IV of France defeated the Catholics under the duke of Mayenne ¿ Meuse, Meuse River, Argonne, Argonne Forest, Meuse-Argonne, Meuse-Argonne operation ¿ an American operation in World War I (1918); American troops under Pershing drove back the German armies which were saved only by the Armistice on November 11 ¿ Orleans, siege of Orleans ¿ a long siege by the English was relieved by Joan of Arc in 1429 ¿ Poitiers, battle of Poitiers ¿ the battle in 1356 in which the English under the Black Prince defeated the French ¿ Rocroi, battle of Rocroi ¿ a battle in the Thirty Years' War (1643); the French defeated the Spanish invaders ¿ Saint-Mihiel, St Mihiel, battle of St Mihiel ¿ a battle in the Meuse-Argonne operation in World War I (1918); the battle in which American troops launched their first offensive in France ¿ Soissons, battle of Soissons-Reims, battle of the Chemin-des-Dames, battle of the Aisne ¿ a battle in World War I (May 1918); the Germans tried to attack before the American numbers were too great to defeat; the tactical success of the Germans proved to be a strategic failure ¿ Somme, Somme River, battle of the Somme ¿ battle in World War I (1916) ¿ Somme, Somme River, battle of the Somme ¿ battle of World War II (1944) ¿ Tertry, battle of Tertry ¿ a battle in France in 687 among the descendants of Clovis ¿ Valmy, battle of Valmy ¿ the French defeated the Austrian and Prussian troops in 1792 (with a famous cannonade from the French artillery) ¿ Verdun, battle of Verdun ¿ a battle in World War I (1916); in some of the bloodiest fighting in World War I the German offensive was stopped.
 
From: France
 

Shipman Jasmine Friday, 3/4/05, 9:05 AM
 
Your web site is great.
 
From: ashville
Web Site:  frogger
 

Jasmine Shipman Friday, 3/4/05, 9:03 AM
 
From: Weaverville
 

The Romans in ¿La Manche¿ Monday, 2/21/05, 5:05 AM
 
To secure the defence of the English Channel, the Romans created a naval station at the foot of the Gallic settlement of Gesoriacum, the name of which was changed to Bononia Oceanensis (Boulogne-sur- Mer). Here was stationed the ¿Classis Britannica¿, the Channel fleet. Caligula, who honoured it with a visit in the year 40 A.D., ordered the construction of a lighthouse, the twelve storeys of which were each smaller than the one below, and which held a light at the height of two hundred feet. The lighthouse, known as the Turris Ardens, and later as the Tour d'Ordre and the Old Man, lasted until 1644. There were also posts on the other side of the strait, for instance at Richborough where there was a great ceremonial gate, and at Dover, where there still exists a fragment of a Roman lighthouse. This fragment, the Bredenstone, serves as a seat for the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports at the ceremony of his investiture. In the 5th century the Channel fleet left Boulogne when the invasion of the Franks began.
 
Web Site:  Classis Britannica
 

Battle of Maurica/Mauriac Plain/Chalons/Catalaunian Plain Summer 451 Monday, 2/21/05, 4:46 AM
 
This battle must hold the record for the one known under the most different names!. Attila the Hun, with numerous subject German tribes including Gepids and Ostrogoths, marched on Orleans where he had been secretly promised the assistance of an Alan colony against the Romans. A hastily cemented alliance of Romans under Aetius, and Visigoths under Theoderic, reached the city before the Huns arrived. Attila declined to assault the strongly fortified city and retreated along the road to Troyes (Tricasses). Not very far from Troyes, the Huns turned to face the confederate army which was close upon their heels. The battle, which began in the afternoon and lasted into the night, was drawn; there was immense slaughter, and king Theoderic was among the slain. Next day, the Romans found that Attila was strongly entrenched behind his wagons. Thorismud, son of Theoderic, burning to avenge his father's death, was eager to storm the entrenchment. However Aetius was eager to maintain a balance of power amongst the barbarians, and persuaded Thorismud to return to Tolosa, lest his brothers should contest his succession to the kingship. The battle¿s significance has been exaggerated in conventional history. It cannot be designated as one of the critical battles of the world. The campaign had really been decided by the strategic success of the allies in cutting off Attila from Orleans. The battle was fought when he was in full retreat, and its value lay in damaging his prestige as an invincible conqueror and in weakening his forces.
 
Web Site:  Bury
 

Some Dark Age battles, mainly in France Friday, 2/18/05, 8:34 AM
 
c470 ¿the Briton (Breton) Rhitamos leads 12,000 men to fight Saxons along the Loire River for the Roman Aegius at Soissons, and his ally Childeric the Frank 470s--Battle of Orleans was fought by Childeric. There was a plague and Aegius of Soissons died. His son Sygarius took command at Soissons. Count Paul in command of Romans and Franks attacked the Goths and 'seized booty form them.' Odovacer reached Angers but Childeric arrived the next day and a battle ensued. Count Paul was killed and Childeric took the city. Childeric occupied Angers, whose church was burnt. (source: Gregory of Tours II,18) 486-- Battle of Soissons. Clovis defeats Sygarius son of Aegius and annexes the Roman kingdom of Soissons to the Frankish kingdom. 843-- Erispoe son of Nomenoe and Lambert, Count of Nantes, lead a Breton army against Renaud at the battle of Messac. 845-- (November) Charles the Bald is defeated at Baldon near Redon. 851-- Erispoe became the first King of Brittany after defeating Charles the Bald at the three day battle of Jengland, and then the battle of Ballon. However, he still acknowledged fealty to Charles the Bald. Louis III defeated the Vikings in 881 near Saucourt at the river Somme. This battle was described in the Song of Ludwig (Ludwigslied). According to the Fulda Annals Louis' army killed 9.000 Danes. Consequence of this was that the Vikings returned to Flanders and Dutch Limburg. 885 Harald Finehair wins battle of Hafrsfjord; begins unification of Norway. 888 King Odo of the Franks defeats the Norse at the battle of Montfaucon Battle of Dyle 891: ¿Northmen plundered on the Oise, where they were vigorously opposed by Odo, and also on the Scheldt; for a while they ravaged on this last-named river unchecked, but in 891 they met with defeat at the hands of Arnulf, Carloman's son and king of the East Franks, at Dyle near Louvain; and in 892, in the time of a severe famine, the whole force, now only 250 ships strong, sailed off to England¿. The Franks appear to have fought on horseback. 917 Danes defeated at Tempsford in England; king and garrison are slain. Danes unsuccessfully attack Towcester and Wiggingamere. 918 Ragnold defeats Northumbrians and Scots at the battle of Corbridge
 

Breton chronology Friday, 2/18/05, 7:55 AM
 
Web Site:  Breton chronology
 

more battles in France Thursday, 10/21/04, 9:44 AM
 
Carcassonne 0793 Narbonne France Marseilles Bc102 Aquae Sextiae Marius defeats the Teutons France Anjou Angers 1429 Baugé Joan Of Arc France Armagnac 1346 Aiguillon On the Garonne River France Blois Dreux 1424 Verneuil Henry v France Burgundy 0068 Vesontio Nero defeats Vindex at the start of a Roman civil war France Burgundy Besancon 1474 Hericourt France Burgundy Macon Bc58 Mont Beuvray (Bibracte) Allied to the local Aedui tribe, Caesar defeats migrating Helvetii France Champagne Chalons 0274 Durocatalauni Aurelian defeats Tetricus, the last Gallic Emperor France Champagne Chalons 0451 Catalaunian Plains Romans and allies defeat Attila the Hun, whose troops are mostly reduced to fighting on foot. France Gascony Bordeaux 1453 Castillon France Limousin Limoges 1345 Auberoche France Lorraine Nancy 1477 Nancy France Lot Lyon 0197 Lugdunum Severus defeats Albinus, who commits suicide France Maine Tours 1370 Pontvallain France Normandy St Lo 1450 Formigny Henry v France Orleanais Orleans 1429 Patay Joan Of Arc France Picardy Amiens 1475 Picquigny France Poitou Poitiers 0507 Vouillé Visigoths defeated France Poitou Poitiers 0732 Poitiers France Poitou Poitiers 1356 Maupertuis France Provence Bc105 Orange Cimbri and Teutons defeat Romans French waters La Rochelle 1372 Sea battle off La Rochelle French waters Off Flanders Sluis 1340 Sluys Sea battle off Flemish coast
 
From: France
 

BATTLE OF ORTHEZ 1813 Thursday, 2/5/04, 9:25 AM
 
As soon as lord Wellington had the news of the surrender of Pamplona to the Spaniards, he decided to advance into French territory. There followed several combats in the Nivelle and the Nive, in which the allies lost 5,000 men. At Orthez, Soult awaited him with 40,000 soldiers, commanding the right general Reille, the center Drouet, and the left, that rested on the city, defending the passage of the river, in charge of Clausel. Beresford attacked the French right, while general Picton attacked his center and left at the same time. The French were forced backwards by the center, although in good order, and their retirement forced the wings to fall back. The retreat soon turned to a rout and Marshal Soult lost up to 12,000 men, many of them deserters, and 2,000 prisoners. The allies lost 2,300 men, of whom 600 were Portuguese.
 

Muret 1213 Tuesday, 1/20/04, 11:27 AM
 
a v pretty site on this battle against the Cathar heretics in the mountains of southern France near Carcasonne.
 
Web Site:  early blazon
 

last stand of the Gauls 51bc Friday, 7/18/03, 8:48 AM
 
Two French archaeologists said using carbon dating tests have located the site of Julius Caesar¿s final conquest of the Gauls in 51 BC at the edge of the village of Puy d¿Issolud, north of the town of Cahors, in the Lot region of south-west France. Caesar¿s memoirs name the place as Uxellodunum. A new dig would begin at the site to provide more evidence of this battle site where 20,000 Roman soldiers overcame the 5,000 Gaullic defenders. The Romans laid siege to the village and forced their adversaries into surrender by diverting the sole water source. Legend has it that the Caesar cut off the right hands of his prisoners before his triumphant return to Rome.
 
From: SW France
Web Site:  Julius Caesar
 

a history of the Normans Thursday, 5/22/03, 11:11 AM
 
Web Site:  a history of the Normans
 

The Napoleonic Guide Monday, 12/16/02, 11:03 AM
 
a very nice, authoritative and extensive looking guide
 
Web Site:  The Napoleonic Guide
Infantry 1915
Napoleon's hat
Les batailles de la France
French Knights
Napoleonic line infantry
Napoleonic battle - possibly Austerlitz
Renault tank ww1
Marines 1870 - 1
Mitrailleuse 1870 - 1
Gironde shield
French regions III
Napoleon Bonaparte
France in 545 ad
Grenadier of the Guard
La grande armee
Typical staff map from Napoleons time
Frankish vavalry invade the later Roman Empire
French guns of WW1
period map of the Craone area 1760 - 90
Breton flag
France - regions used in the battle database
Napoleonic Cuirassier
the French Revolutionary cockade, and later air force roundel
knight of Vendome
French knight
the charge of the French knights
the famous BATTLE OF THE HERRINGS near Rouvrais during the 100 Years War
french troops in America during the AWI
French troops of the Renaissance
more french standards of the C18
Mars la Tour 1870
French infantryman 1870
Worth 1870