MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Location: file:///C:/6859DE57/~WRD2617.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" The Battle of Saraighat was fought in 1671 between the Mughal empire (led by the Kachwaha king, Raja Ramsingh I), and the Ahom Kingdom (led by Lachit Borphukan) on the Brahmaputra river at Saraighat, now in Guwahati</t= itle> <o:SmartTagType namespaceuri=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name=3D"country-region"/> <o:SmartTagType namespaceuri=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name=3D"PlaceName"/> <o:SmartTagType namespaceuri=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name=3D"PlaceType"/> <o:SmartTagType namespaceuri=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name=3D"City"/> <o:SmartTagType namespaceuri=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name=3D"place"/> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>pdowden</o:Author> <o:LastAuthor>pdowden</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>2</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>65</o:TotalTime> <o:Created>2011-01-31T11:17:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2011-01-31T11:17:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>1</o:Pages> <o:Words>2922</o:Words> <o:Characters>16660</o:Characters> <o:Company>OFT</o:Company> <o:Lines>138</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>39</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>19543</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>11.9999</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:HideSpellingErrors/> <w:HideGrammaticalErrors/> <w:ActiveWritingStyle Lang=3D"EN-US" VendorID=3D"64" DLLVersion=3D"131078" NLCheck=3D"1">1</w:ActiveWritingStyle> <w:SpellingState>Clean</w:SpellingState> <w:GrammarState>Clean</w:GrammarState> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState=3D"false" LatentStyleCount=3D"156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if !mso]><object classid=3D"clsid:38481807-CA0E-42D2-BF39-B33AF135CC4D" id=3Dieooui></objec= t> <style> st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } </style> <![endif]--> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Univers; 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mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext=3D"edit" spidmax=3D"1026"/> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext=3D"edit"> <o:idmap v:ext=3D"edit" data=3D"1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor=3D"#FF99CC" lang=3DEN-US link=3Dblue vlink=3Dpurple style=3D'= tab-interval: 36.0pt'> <div class=3DSection1> <p class=3DMsoNormal align=3Dcenter style=3D'text-align:center'><b style=3D= 'mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style=3D'font-size:17.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;color:pur= ple'>The <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> in the <st1:place w:st=3D"on">Brahmaput= ra</st1:place> valley 1602 - 1682<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Mughal</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-we= ight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> interest in the Brahmaputra valley be= gan in 1602 when the <span class=3DSpellE>Nawab</span> of Dhaka attacked <span class=3DSpellE>Parikshit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Narayan</span> of Koch= <span class=3DSpellE>Hajo</span> at <span class=3DSpellE>Dhubri</span>, the weste= rn most corner of <st1:country-region w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">Assam</st1= :place></st1:country-region>. The first <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal-Ahom</span> conflict took place in 16= 15 when the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> attacked the <span class=3DSpe= llE>Ahoms</span>, then under <span class=3DSpellE>Pratap</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Singha</= span>, for protecting <st1:place w:st=3D"on">Bali</st1:place> <span class=3DSpellE= >Narayan</span>, the brother of <span class=3DSpellE>Parikshit</span>. This resulted in a pe= riod of <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal-Ahom</span> war with fluctuating fortunes th= at ended with the Treaty of <span class=3DSpellE>Asurar</span> Ali in 1639. Th= e Treaty fixed <span class=3DSpellE>Barnadi</span> <span class=3DGramE>river</span> = in the north bank and <span class=3DSpellE>Asurar</span> Ali in the south bank of = the <st1:place w:st=3D"on">Brahmaputra</st1:place> as the boundary between the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> and the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span>. Th= is, and the defeat of the Koch king at <span class=3DSpellE>Pandu</span> in 1641, resulted in a period of <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> administration i= n <span class=3DSpellE>Kamrup</span> (<span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Hajo</span>.)<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Taking advantage of the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal<= /span> succession wars after the fall of the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> em= peror Shah <span class=3DSpellE>Jahan</span> in 1658, <span class=3DSpellE>Pran</= span> <span class=3DSpellE>Narayan</span> of Koch <st1:place w:st=3D"on">Bihar</st1:pla= ce> tried to occupy Koch <span class=3DSpellE>Hajo</span>, but the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> under <span class=3DSpellE>Jayadhwaj</span> <sp= an class=3DSpellE>Singha</span> took <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> and = pushed him back beyond <span class=3DSpellE>Dhubri</span>. That the <span class=3D= SpellE>Ahoms</span> reached <span class=3DSpellE>Dhubri</span> by defeating the Koch king and n= ot the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> would form a central tenet in later <sp= an class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> diplomacy. Soon after, Aurangzeb occupied the <st= 1:City w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">Delhi</st1:place></st1:City> throne. Mir= <span class=3DSpellE>Jumla</span>, pursuing Shah <span class=3DSpellE>Shuja</span= > in Bengal, was appointed the <span class=3DSpellE>Subahdar</span> of Bengal in= 1660 and asked to retake <st1:country-region w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">= Assam</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Mir <span class=3DSpellE>Jumla</span> marched in 1661 and defeated the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> at successive encounters to finally take the <s= pan class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> capital <span class=3DSpellE>Garhgaon</span>. Bu= t the <span class=3DSpellE>daga</span> <span class=3DSpellE>juddha</span> (guerrilla wa= rfare) of <span class=3DSpellE>Atan</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Burhagohain</span>= and the rains succeeded in cutting off <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> communica= tion lines making it impossible for Mir <span class=3DSpellE>Jumla</span> to consolidate <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> rule. Unaware of Mir <span class=3DSpellE>Jumlas</span> difficulties and unnerved by <span class=3DSpe= llE>Baduli</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Phukan's</span> defection, <span class=3DSpellE>Jayadh= waj</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Singha</span> sued for peace (<span class=3DSpellE>Sar= kar</span> 1992:187), an opportunity Mir <span class=3DSpellE>Jumla</span> seized on. = The Treaty of <span class=3DSpellE>Ghilajharighat</span> (1663) brought an end = to <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> occupation of <span class=3DSpellE>Garhgaon</s= pan>, but the conditions of this treaty were so severe that the <span class=3DSpe= llE>Ahoms</span> were soon resolved to reverse them.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Ahom</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weig= ht:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> preparations to renew the war<o:p></o:p></span></b>= </p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>After the humiliating defeat inflicted by Mir <span class=3DSpellE>Jumla</span> the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> king <span class=3DSpellE>Jayadhwaj</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Singha</span> died in = despair. On his deathbed, he exhorted his cousin and successor <span class=3DSpellE>= Chakradhwaj</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Singha</span> to "remove the spear of humiliation= from the bosom of the nation." There followed a complete overhaul of the <s= pan class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> kingdom. People who had dispersed due to Mir <sp= an class=3DSpellE>Jumla's</span> invasion were rehabilitated in the appropriat= e <span class=3DSpellE>khels</span>, food and military productions were increased, = new forts were constructed and garrisoned and an expeditionary army was organiz= ed under a new commander—<span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span> (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:19= 9).[1] Alliances were renewed with the <span class=3DSpellE>Jaintia</span> and the= <span class=3DSpellE>Kachari</span> kingdoms. During this period <span class=3DSp= ellE>Mughal</span> imperial demands were tactfully and diplomatically rebuffed, but when the n= ew <span class=3DSpellE>Faujdar</span> of <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>Firuz</span> Khan, forced the matter in March 1667, the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> were compelled to move (<span class=3DSpellE>Sa= rkar</span> 1992:204). In August 1667 the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> army, under = <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span> and acco= mpanied by <span class=3DSpellE>Atan</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Burhagohain</span>= , sailed downstream to retake <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>.<o:p></o:p></span= ></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> retake <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> 1667<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Lachit</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-we= ight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> made <span class=3DSpellE>Kaliabor</s= pan>, the old seat of the <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span>, his base camp and advanced toward <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> along both banks of th= e <st1:place w:st=3D"on">Brahmaputra</st1:place>. On the north bank the <span class=3DSp= ellE>Deka</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Phukan</span> retook <span class=3DSpellE>Bahbari</spa= n> in early September 1667. On the south bank, the <span class=3DSpellE>Nausalia<= /span> <span class=3DSpellE>Phukan</span> and others, moving on land and water, ca= ptured <span class=3DSpellE>Kajali</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>Sonapur</span>, <s= pan class=3DSpellE>Panikhaiti</span>, and <span class=3DSpellE>Titamara</span> = forts between the <span class=3DSpellE>Kapili</span> <span class=3DGramE>river</s= pan> and <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>. The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span>= then reached <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> which was defended by five <sp= an class=3DSpellE>choukies</span> on each bank of the <st1:place w:st=3D"on">B= rahmaputra</st1:place> (north--Kanai-<span class=3DSpellE>borosi-bowa</span>, <span class=3DSpellE= >Hillar</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>Hindurighopa</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>Patduar</spa= n> and <span class=3DSpellE>Korai</span>; south--<span class=3DSpellE>Latasil</span>, <s= pan class=3DSpellE>Joiduar</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>Dharamduar</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>Duarguria</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Pandu</span>). Wit= h some loss, the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> captured Shah <span class=3DSpe= llE>Buruz</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Rangamahal</span> forts, a little north of the cit= y. An extended battle was fought for the <span class=3DSpellE>Itakhuli</span> for= t (at the site of the current Deputy Commissioner's bungalow). The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> besieged <span class=3DSpellE>Joiduar</span>, o= ccupied <span class=3DSpellE>Pandu</span>, and in spite of <span class=3DGramE>a <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span></span> reinforcement, approached <span class= =3DSpellE>Itakhuli</span>. The grand attack was launched on the night of November 4, 1667, when the <s= pan class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> scaled the walls by ladders and after two month= s of siege, <span class=3DSpellE>Itakhuli</span> fell in mid-November 1667. Most= of the defenders were massacred, many surrendered but a few managed to escape.= War provisions, treasures and war material fell into <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom<= /span> hands (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:206–207).<o:p></o:p></= span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> received som= e reinforcement at this point and retaliated against the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span>.= The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> fought back with their naval forces and removed= them from their bases in <span class=3DSpellE>Umananda</span> and <span class=3D= SpellE>Barhat</span>. The <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span>, pursued by the <span class=3DSpell= E>Ahoms</span>, managed to fortify the <span class=3DSpellE>Manahmukh</span> (the confluenc= e of <span class=3DSpellE>Manas</span> <span class=3DGramE>river</span>) and fend off = the attackers for some time but <span class=3DSpellE>Firuz</span> Khan finally surrendered and was taken prisoner. This brought an end to the recapture of= <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> and the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> we= re able to control their old <span class=3DSpellE>Manas</span> border once again. B= ut this did not last long and they had to beat a strategic retreat due to the advancing <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> army of Raja Ram Singh.<o:p></= o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Mughal</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-we= ight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> imperial invasion 1667<o:p></o:p></sp= an></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Mughal</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-we= ight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> emperor Aurangzeb was informed of the losses on December 19, 1667 and he commissioned Raja Ram Singh of Amber, so= n of the famous <span class=3DSpellE>Mirza</span> Raja Jai Singh, to take back <= span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>. Ram Singh left <st1:City w:st=3D"on"><st1:p= lace w:st=3D"on">Delhi</st1:place></st1:City> on December 27, 1667, and finally reached <span class=3DSpellE>Rangamati</span> in February in 1669. He was accompanied, as was the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> custom of sendin= g two generals, by Rashid Khan, ex-<span class=3DSpellE>faujdar</span> of <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>, and from <st1:City w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w= :st=3D"on">Patna</st1:place></st1:City> by the Sikh Guru <span class=3DSpellE>Tegh</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Baha= dur</span>. The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span>, anticipating a <span class=3DSpellE>= Mughal</span> strike, is said to have followed his movements from <st1:City w:st=3D"on"><= st1:place w:st=3D"on">Delhi</st1:place></st1:City> itself. Along the way Aurangzeb augmented Ram Singh's forces of 4,000 troopers (from his char-<span class=3DSpellE>hazaari</span> <span class=3DSpellE>mansab</span>), 1,500 <s= pan class=3DSpellE>ahadis</span> and 500 <span class=3DSpellE>barqandezes</span= > by an additional 30,000 infantrymen, 21 <span class=3DSpellE>Rajput</span> chiefs= (<span class=3DSpellE>Thakurs</span>) with their contingents, 18,000 cavalry, 2,000 archers and <span class=3DSpellE>shieldmen</span> and 40 ships (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:211) When <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</sp= an> surveyed the massive <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> force later, he was= moved to tears and he uttered: "It is a tragedy that my country is facing th= is dire catastrophe during my <span class=3DSpellE>Phukanship</span>. How will= my king be saved? How will my people be saved? And how will my posterity be saved?" (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:229)<o:p></o:p></span= ></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Armies from Koch <st1:place w:st=3D"on">Bihar</st1:p= lace> joined the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> forces since they were vassal= s.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Ahom</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weig= ht:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> strategic planning and <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal<= /span> attacks 1669<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Aware of <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> military= might and the weakness of the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> soldiers, especial= ly against cavalry and mounted forces in open fields, <span class=3DSpellE>Lac= hit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span> and others decided to choose the terr= ain of the battlefield with care. The choice fell on <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati= </span>, which was hilly, on the way to the heart of the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</= span> kingdom and without open fields where the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> forces would not have sufficient mobility. The only way east was via the <s= t1:place w:st=3D"on">Brahmaputra</st1:place> <span class=3DGramE>river</span> passing through it. The Brahmaputra at <span class=3DSpellE>Saraighat</span>, at its narrowest 1km <span class=3DGramE>width,</span> was ideal for a naval defen= se. To check the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> advance, <span class=3DSpellE>= Lachit</span> prepared a complex system of mud embankments in <span class=3DSpellE>Guwaha= ti</span>. When the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> found <span class=3DSpellE>Guw= ahati</span> impregnable by land, they would be forced to use their navy, which was their weakest asset. <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> set up his headquarters a= t <span class=3DSpellE>Andharubali</span>, the sandbanks between the <span class=3D= SpellE>Kamakhya</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Sukreshwar</span> hills. The deliberations of the = war council were recorded and made into a manual (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</= span> 1992:213).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>When the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> march re= ached the <span class=3DSpellE>Manas</span> <span class=3DGramE>river</span> in March-April 1669 and defeated some <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> forces,= <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> decided on a strategic retreat to <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>. Three <span class=3DSpellE>Rajkhowas</span>= were asked to meet the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> forces and retreat to = <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>, keeping the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</sp= an> forces in sight but beyond the reach of their weapons. When the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> reached closer, he started a sham negotiation= with Ram Singh, who had set up camp at <span class=3DSpellE>Agiathuti</span>, ca= lling him a "<span class=3DSpellE>Bhai</span> Raja" (brother prince). A= nd when he was ready for the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> attacks, he se= nt words to Ram Singh via <span class=3DSpellE>Firuz</span> Khan that "<s= pan class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Kamrup</span> do no= t belong to the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span>" since they were taken from= the Koch and that the Assamese were prepared to fight to the last (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:214).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>A period of battles between the <span class=3DSpellE= >Ahom</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> forces in the region of <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> followed, with varied results with forts cha= nging hands many times. In these battles, the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> = forces were arraigned in four divisions (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:2= 15):<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DGramE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:n= ormal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The north bank, commanded by Ram Singh himself.</spa= n></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> <o:p></= o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The south bank, under Ali Akbar Khan, Mir <span class=3DSpellE>Sayyid</span> Khan, Raja <span class=3DSpellE>Indramani</spa= n>, Raja <span class=3DSpellE>Jaynarayan</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Marul</span= > Khan <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The <span class=3DSpellE>Sindurighopa</span> entranc= e, under <span class=3DSpellE>Jahir</span> Beg, <span class=3DSpellE>Kayam</span> Kh= an, <span class=3DSpellE>Ghanashyam</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Bakshi</span>, and th= ree <span class=3DSpellE>Baruah's</span> from Koch Bihar—<span class=3DSpellE>K= avisekhar</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>Sarveshwar</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Manmatha</s= pan>. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The <span class=3DGramE>river,</span> guarded by the= naval commanders Mansur Khan, <span class=3DSpellE>Latif</span> Khan, <span class=3DSpellE>Iswarpati</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>firinghees</span> (Eu= ropeans) and one <span class=3DSpellE>Kapidan</span> Raja. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>In these attacks the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> allies—the <span class=3DSpellE>Garos</span>, the <span class=3DSpell= E>Jaintia</span>, the <span class=3DSpellE>Nagas</span>, the <span class=3DSpellE>Rani</span>= of <span class=3DSpellE>Darrang</span>, the Raja of <span class=3DSpellE>Rani</span>= , and even the monsoons of 1669—joined battle. The <span class=3DSpellE>Aho= m</span> defense was arraigned as follows (according to <span class=3DSpellE>Gogoi</= span> 1968:39–43):<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DGramE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:n= ormal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The north bank, under the command of <span class=3DS= pellE>Atan</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Burhagohain</span>.</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-b= idi-font-weight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DGramE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:n= ormal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The south bank, under the command of <span class=3DS= pellE>Lachit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span>.</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bid= i-font-weight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Both commanders had a number of <span class=3DSpellE= ><span class=3DGramE>pali</span></span> commanders each defending a specific strat= egic area, with each <span class=3DSpellE>pali</span> reorganized in response to= the challenge posed by Ram Singh's forces.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Aurangzeb received information of the lack of progre= ss in August 1669 and made arrangements with the <span class=3DSpellE>Subahdar</s= pan> of Bengal, <span class=3DSpellE>Shaistha</span> Khan, to provide reinforcem= ents to Ram Singh. This period is also known for <span class=3DSpellE>Atan</span= > <span class=3DSpellE>Burhagohain's</span> dagga <span class=3DSpellE>judha</span> (guerilla warfare). Ram Singh protested that these harassing campaigns lowe= red the "dignity of warfare", and withdrew from fighting (October 1669-March 1670)<span class=3DGramE>,</span> to no particular military adva= ntage (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:218–219).<o:p></o:p></span><= /b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Major <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> reversal at <= span class=3DSpellE>Alaboi</span> 1669<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>One of these battles stood out for a major <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> reversal. Exasperated with the delaying tactics = of the <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span>, Ram Singh asked for a duel with the = <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> king. He promised to withdraw from <st1:country-= region w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">Assam</st1:place></st1:country-region> w= ith his army if he was defeated. <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> updated <span class=3DSpellE>Chakradhwaj</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Singha</span> about = this proposal, who rejected the offer on the ground that <span class=3DGramE>it<= /span> was beneath his dignity to duel a mere servant "who has no umbrella ov= er his head." Annoyed with Ram Singh's proposal he ordered <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> to confront the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</= span> militarily. In a battle that was set up as a challenge, a force of 10,000 <= span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> under Mir <span class=3DSpellE>Nawab</span> w= as to confront a force of 20,000 <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> cavalry. Ram Si= ngh's "approach was psychological, marked by pride, chivalry and revenge&quo= t;. The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> approach, to cover their basic weaknes= ses, was based on "diplomacy, deception and <span class=3DSpellE>mispresent= ation</span>". So instead of 20,000, they sent in 40,000 and using an anti-<span class=3DS= pellE>koch</span> tactic that had worked against <span class=3DSpellE>Chilarai</span>, they d= ressed their vanguard archers and musketeers as Brahmans to make the <span class=3DSpellE>Rajput</span> warriors desist from killing them. Ram Singh, = on the other hand, set a woman, <span class=3DSpellE>Madanavati</span>, dressed as= a man, to command the vanguard to deny the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> = any glory in case of a victory. The battle took place in the fields adjoining t= he <span class=3DSpellE>Alaboi</span> hills about August 5, 1669.<o:p></o:p></span><= /b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>In the first phase, <span class=3DSpellE>Madanavati<= /span> dispersed the first four lines of the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> vang= uard with ease, but the <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span> had trenches dug to conceal his other lines. In the second phase, a diversion to cross the <st1= :place w:st=3D"on">Brahmaputra</st1:place> was thwarted, and <span class=3DSpellE>= Madanavati</span> was shot. The battle turned and in the third phase, Mir <span class=3DSpell= E>Nawab's</span> forces were routed. Enraged at the deception, Ram Singh let loose his veter= an horsemen and in the carnage that followed, 10,000 <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom= </span> soldiers were massacred.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Aurangzeb was pleased with these <span class=3DSpell= E>Mughal</span> successes and increased Ram Singh's <span class=3DSpellE>mansab</span> from= 4000 to 5000. <span class=3DGramE>Ram Singh was also instructed to invest <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> soon, and if it was not possible, to devasta= te the land and plunder the people.</span><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Final diplomatic maneuvers<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>After the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> advance= s in late 1669, Ram Singh began diplomatic efforts. The proposal was for the Assamese to evacuate <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> and a return to t= he 1639 status quo (Treaty of <span class=3DSpellE>Asurar</span> Ali) in retur= n for a <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> payment of 300,000 rupees. The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> did not respond favorably. Ram Singh next attem= pted to bribe and create divisions among the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> fi= eld commanders (<span class=3DSpellE>Phukans</span>). In the mean time, the <sp= an class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> king <span class=3DSpellE>Chakradhwaj</span> <sp= an class=3DSpellE>Singha</span> died and was succeeded by his brother <span class=3DSpellE>Udayaditya</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Singha</span>. The lo= ng war had resulted in popular discontent in the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> kingdom. Ram Singh again put forward his proposal on the 1639 status quo settlement and this time the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> appeared receptive. The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> king, though displeased, le= ft the decision to his commanders in <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>. In the meeting which included <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> <span class=3DSpe= llE>Borphukan</span>, the only dissenter to the proposal was <span class=3DSpellE>Atan</span> <sp= an class=3DSpellE>Burhagohain</span>, who displayed his statesmanship.<o:p></o= :p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Atan</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weig= ht:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> <span class=3DSpellE>Burhagohain</span> argued that= there was no guarantee that the Emperor at <st1:City w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st= =3D"on">Delhi</st1:place></st1:City> will abide by Ram Singh's assurance. Also, a settlement then would mean that the drain on the country's resources would have been in vain. Further, what= was the guarantee that once the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> take <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>, they would not reach for <span class=3DSpel= lE>Garhgaon</span> or even <span class=3DSpellE>Namrup</span> (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</sp= an> 1990:224)?<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Atan</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weig= ht:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> <span class=3DSpellE>Burhagohain</span> was able to persuade the other commanders and the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> rej= ected this proposal. The diplomatic efforts of Ram Singh failed once again.<o:p><= /o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Final battle at <span class=3DSpellE>Saraighat</span= > 1671<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><span style=3D'mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p><= /o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The <st1:City w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">Bat= tle</st1:place></st1:City> of <span class=3DSpellE>Saraighat</span>, March 1671Meanwhile, <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> reinforcements in the shape of war-vessels and imperial officers (<span class=3DSpellE>Omraos</span>) reached Ram Singh, a= long with the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> admiral, <span class=3DSpellE>M= unnawar</span> Khan and the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> Viceroy <span class=3DSpell= E>Shaista</span> Khan, sent the message that Ram Singh was sent to fight the Assamese, not m= ake friends with them (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:225). Ram Singh = now made preparations for his final and direct assault on <span class=3DSpellE>= Guwahati</span> and began moving along the <span class=3DSpellE>northbank</span>. Near <span class=3DSpellE>Sualkuchi</span> he was joined by ships with artillery and a= rchers under five <span class=3DSpellE>sardars</span>. The <span class=3DSpellE>Mu= ghals</span> had large boats, some carrying as many as sixteen cannons. The <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> ambassador, <span class=3DSpellE>Paditrai</spa= n>, had reported a breach in the embankment at <span class=3DSpellE>Andharubali</sp= an> a few days earlier, and Ram Singh wanted to exploit this opening (<span class=3DSpellE>Gogoi</span> 1968:474–475).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> soldiers were <= span class=3DSpellE>demoralised</span> after their losses at <span class=3DSpell= E>Allaboi</span>. Their commander-in-chief, <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> <span class=3D= SpellE>Borphukan</span> and their admiral were both seriously ill, and the <st1:City w:st=3D"on"><s= t1:place w:st=3D"on">Nara</st1:place></st1:City> Raja, the son of the <span class= =3DSpellE>Miri</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Sandikoi</span>, was in command. An encounter both on = land and water ensued near <span class=3DSpellE>Ashwakranta</span>. The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> land forces, under <span class=3DSpellE>Laluk</s= pan> <span class=3DSpellE>Borgohain</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Phukan</span>, worsted= the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span>, but the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> b= oats compelled the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> boats to retreat to <span class=3DSpellE>Barhila</span>, north of <span class=3DSpellE>Saraighat</spa= n>. The land forces, fearing <span class=3DGramE>an encirclement</span>, too retrea= ted (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:226). The battle reached a crucial phase,= when the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> were beginning to get close to <span class=3DSpellE>Andharubali</span>. The <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span= >, as well as the <st1:City w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">Nara</st1:place></= st1:City> Raja sent messages to inspire the soldiers. It looked as if there was a bre= ak in command and some boats began falling back to <span class=3DSpellE>Kajali= </span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Samdhara</span>. <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span= > <span class=3DSpellE>Barphukan</span> was observing this from his sickbed in the gatehouse of the <span class=3DSpellE>Itakhuli</span> fort.<o:p></o:p></spa= n></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>At this crucial moment in the battle, when the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> were about to land at <span class=3DSpellE>An= dharubali</span>, the <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span> sent orders via <span class=3DSpe= llE>katakis</span> to all the land and naval forces to attack. He also ordered seven war-<span class=3DGramE>boats[</span>4] for himself and had <span class=3DSpellE>Nada= i</span> of <span class=3DSpellE>Kharangi</span> carry him to a boat. He shouted &qu= ot;The King has put all the people in my hands to fight the <span class=3DSpellE>B= ongal</span>. Shall I go back to my wife and children?" and pushed a few men into the water. With the other six war-boats the <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</spa= n> headed toward the naval battle (<span class=3DSpellE>Sarkar</span> 1992:226= ).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The entry of the <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</spa= n> transformed the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> soldiers. His small flotil= la soon swelled with <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> warships from all sides = that smashed into the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> warships at <span class=3DSpellE>Amrajuli</span> on the north bank, opposite <span class=3DSp= ellE>Kamakhya</span> hills. The triangle in the river, between <span class=3DSpellE>Itakhuli</sp= an>, <span class=3DSpellE>Kamakhya</span> and <span class=3DSpellE>Aswakranta</span> w= as filled with men and boat. The <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> spanned the= river over an <span class=3DSpellE>improviso</span> bridge of boats and resorted = to a combined front and rear attack. The <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> admi= ral <span class=3DSpellE>Munnawar</span> Khan, smoking a hookah was killed by a gunsh= ot from the back, throwing the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> out of gear= . They suffered the loss of three top-ranking <span class=3DSpellE>amirs</span>, a= nd another 4000 dead. The day of this decisive battle is not known for certain, only that it happened in the middle of March 1671.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Epilogue<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> were pursued= to the <span class=3DSpellE>Manas</span> <span class=3DGramE>river</span>, the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> kingdom's western boundary. The <span class=3DSp= ellE>Borphukan</span> instructed his men not to attack the retreating army, reminding them of <sp= an class=3DSpellE>Alaboi</span> (<span class=3DSpellE>Gogoi</span> 1968:476). Anticipating a counter attack, he set messengers at regular intervals, whil= e <span class=3DSpellE>Atan</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Burhagohain</span> and other commanders stood ready for one. The <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> in = <span class=3DSpellE>Darrang</span> were also worsted, and Ram Singh left <span class=3DSpellE>Kamrup</span> on April 7, 1671 for <span class=3DSpellE>Rang= amati</span> (<span class=3DSpellE>Gogoi</span> 1968:476). Ram Singh waited in vain for another opportunity, and finally had an audience with Aurangzeb on June 25, 1676.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Lachit</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-we= ight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span>= died at <span class=3DSpellE>Kaliabor</span> about a year later in April 1672, but = not from the illness at <span class=3DSpellE>Saraighat</span> (<span class=3DSp= ellE>Gogoi</span> 1968:479). And this was not the final battle between the <span class=3DSpel= lE>Ahoms</span> and the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span>, nor did <span class=3DSpellE>G= uwahati</span> remain with the <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span>. <span class=3DSpellE>Lac= hit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan's</span> own brother and successor <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span>, <span class=3DSpellE>Laluk</span> Sola, de= serted <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span> for the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> = in 1679. It remained with the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> till 1682, when th= e <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> under <span class=3DSpellE>Gadadhar</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Singha</span> recovered it and ended <span class=3DSpellE>Mu= ghal</span> control in <span class=3DSpellE>Kamrup</span> for ever, though the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> administration of 80 years cast a long shadow.= <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>The <st1:City w:st=3D"on">Battle</st1:City> of <span class=3DSpellE>Saraighat</span> was the last battle in the last major attem= pt by the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> to extend their empire in to <st1:c= ountry-region w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">Assam</st1:place></st1:country-region>. = Though the <span class=3DSpellE>Mughals</span> managed to regain <span class=3DSpe= llE>Guwahati</span> briefly after a later <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span> deserted it, th= e <span class=3DSpellE>Ahoms</span> wrested control in 1682 and maintained it till = the end of their rule.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Notes<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>^ A graphic description of the preparation is availa= ble in <span class=3DSpellE>Purani</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Asam</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Buranji</span>. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>^ Sur-<span class=3DSpellE>bosa</span>, <span class= =3DGramE>special forces</span> that operated behind enemy lines, led by <span class=3DSpellE= >Bagh</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Hazarika</span>, a Muslim, entered the <span class=3DS= pellE>Itakhuli</span> fort and rendered the cannons and gunpowder inoperative by pouring water on them. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>^ According to tradition, <span class=3DSpellE>Lachi= t</span> himself executed his uncle for dereliction of duty while the embankment was being constructed at <span class=3DSpellE>Amingaon</span> at <st1:place w:s= t=3D"on">North <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span></st1:place>. Though this incident fin= ds no mention in any historical document, tradition accords <span class=3DSpellE>= Lachit</span> the quote "My uncle is not greater than my country". Nevertheless= , it is recorded that the <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span> passed an order = that the punishment for dereliction of duty was decapitation. This caused a slig= ht <span class=3DSpellE>furore</span> since only the king was allowed to execute a s= ubject by shedding blood, and in a meeting at the capital, this was discussed. The chief queen, citing the war, intervened on <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan's= </span> behalf and the order was allowed to stand and the fortifications were completed. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>^ <span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span> war-boats were ca= lled <span class=3DSpellE>bacharis</span>, which were similar to the war boats in Beng= al, called <span class=3DSpellE>kosa</span> or <span class=3DSpellE>ranatari</s= pan>, except that the <span class=3DSpellE>bachari</span> had one leveled plank t= o the <span class=3DSpellE>kosa's</span> two projecting horns (<span class=3DSpellE>Kak= oty</span> 2003:109). <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>References<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Barua</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-wei= ght: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>, <span class=3DSpellE>Ajit</span>, <s= pan class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span>, <a href=3D"http://web.archive.org/web/20070310224244/http:/www.assam.org/mod.p= hp?mod=3Duserpage&menu=3D90409&page_id=3D178"><span style=3D'color:purple'>http://web.archive.org/web/20070310224244/http://www= .assam.org/mod.php?mod=3Duserpage&menu=3D90409&page_id=3D178</span>= </a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DGramE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:n= ormal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>retrieved</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font= -weight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'> 2009-04-14<span style=3D'mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Bhuyan</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-we= ight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>, Surya Kumar (1971), <span class=3DSp= ellE>Lachit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span> (in Assamese), <st1:country-region w:= st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">Assam</st1:place></st1:country-region> Publication Board, <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span><span style=3D'mso-spacerun:yes'>  </spa= n><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Gogoi</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-wei= ght: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>, <span class=3DSpellE>Padmeshwar</spa= n> (1968), The Tai and the Tai kingdoms, <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</span>:= <st1:place w:st=3D"on"><st1:PlaceName w:st=3D"on"><span class=3DSpellE>Gauhati</span><= /st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=3D"on">University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place><span style=3D'mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Kakoty</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-we= ight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>, <span class=3DSpellE>Sanjeeb</span> = (2003), Technology, production and Social Formation in the evolution of the <st1:Pl= aceName w:st=3D"on"><span class=3DSpellE>Ahom</span></st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType= w:st=3D"on">State</st1:PlaceType>, Regency Publications, <st1:City w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">New Delh= i</st1:place></st1:City><span style=3D'mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Sarkar</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-we= ight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>, J. N. (1992), "Chapter VIII Ass= am-<span class=3DSpellE>Mughal</span> Relations", in <span class=3DSpellE>Barpu= jari</span>, H. K., <span class=3DGramE>The</span> Comprehensive History of <st1:country= -region w:st=3D"on">Assam</st1:country-region>, 2, <span class=3DSpellE>Guwahati</s= pan>: <st1:place w:st=3D"on"><st1:country-region w:st=3D"on">Assam</st1:country-region></st1= :place> Publication Board, pp. 148–256<span style=3D'mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span class=3DSpellE><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:= normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>Sinha</span></b></span><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-wei= ght: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'>, Lt Gen S K, Emulate the spirit and s= kill of <span class=3DSpellE>Lachit</span> <span class=3DSpellE>Borphukan</span>= , <a href=3D"http://www.hvk.org/articles/0801/92.html"><span style=3D'color:purp= le'>http://www.hvk.org/articles/0801/92.html</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></= b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal align=3Dcenter style=3D'text-align:center'><b style=3D= 'mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style=3D'color:purple'><a href=3D"http://www.thewartourist.co= m/"><span style=3D'color:purple'>HOME</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </div> </body> </html>